Scientific Tree invites all the physicists and scientists across the nations to submit their Abstracts before the deadline ends. Kindly submit your abstract. There are altogether 21 sessions on Laser optics and Photonics. Choose your calling and please submit your abstract relevant to the conference or session
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. A laser differs from other sources of light. It emits light coherently, spatially and temporally; and spatial coherence allows a laser to focus on tight spot enabling laser cutting and lithography applications. Lasers are used in optical disk drives, laser printers, and barcode scanners; DNA sequencing instruments, fiber-optic and free-space optical communication; laser surgery and skin treatments; cutting and welding materials; military and law enforcement devices; for marking targets and measuring range and speed; and laser lighting displays in entertainment. This session discusses more about laser systems and its applications.
Optics and Lasers in Medicine deal with the recent research on application of lasers in diagnostics, therapy and surgery. Lasers have a wide and growing range of applications in medicine. Use of lasers in medicine, key principles of lasers and radiation interactions with tissue needs to be focused. Diagnostic laser methods are used for optical coherence tomography, spectroscopy, optical biopsy, and time-resolved fluorescence polarization spectroscopy. These optics and lasers in medicine help doctors to refine the scope of involvement of the particular body part to specify the extent of a tumor. This session discusses the therapeutic applications of laser radiation in some branches of medicine, including ophthalmology, dermatology, cardiology, urology, gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, neurology, dentistry, orthopedic surgery and cancer therapy, as well as laser coatings of implants.
This is a source-based theory. A scattered field is calculated by integration of the field induced on the object's surface by an incident wave. Physical Optics approximation has become an efficient tool in the analysis of scattering by large opaque objects. It is widely used in analysis of antennas and scattering problems for electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In classical optics approximation the scattered field is separated into two parts such as the reflected field, containing all reflected rays and beams, and the shadow radiation, responsible for the Fresnel diffraction and the forward scattering. This observation elucidates the physics behind the fundamental diffraction law related to the total power scattered by large reflecting objects. It also clarifies the diffraction limit for reduction of scattering by absorbing materials. The wavelength is assumed to be small compared to the scattering object. The asymptotic localization principle is utilized to determine the surface field. On the illuminated side of the object, this field is approximated by the sum of the incident and reflected waves, while on the shadow side, it is supposed to be zero. This is the essence of the physical optics approximation. This session discusses more about classical and physical optics.
Optics and Biomechanics has seen the recent advances which led to the development of the optical stretcher, a novel fiber optic device that can be used to measure the biomechanical properties of isolated cells. The stretcher employs the radiation pressure of near-infrared light to trap and stretch cells with a force that is easily controlled by adjusting the laser intensity. The optical stretcher has advantages over current techniques that are used to apply a force. Unlike mechanical techniques, such as calibrated glass fibers the optical stretcher does not make physical contact with the cell, potentially making it less likely to cause damage during the application. Unlike single beam optical traps that generally pull on a single point such as a bead that has been chemically tethered to the cell, the stretcher exerts a force on the entire surface of the cell. This session discusses about the optical stretcher that promises to be a superior instrument for cellular mechanics.
Optoelectronics is the study and application of electronic devices and systems that sources, detects and controls light. Optoelectronics is a sub-field of photonics and a specific discipline of electronics that focuses on light-emitting or light-detecting devices. Optoelectronics devices include lamps, LEDs, photodiodes, photoresistors, laser diodes, and others. On the contrary, light-detecting devices, such as phototransistors, are designed to convert received electromagnetic energy into electric current or voltage. Light-detecting devices can be used for light sensing and communication. Examples of these include darkness-activated switches and remote controls. In this context, in addition to visible light it includes invisible forms of radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared. This session discusses more about optoelectronics and its latest developments in research field.
Modern Optics deals with classical and quantum optics, lasers, optical fibers and optical fiber systems, optical materials and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Modern optics also covers all subfields of optical physics and engineering, such as electro-optical design of modulators and detectors, nano-photonics, plasmonics, optical interconnects, photonic crystals and 2D materials, such as graphene or holy fibers.
Modern Optics also include solar energy, high efficiency LED's and their use in illumination, orbital angular momentum, quantum optics and information, metamaterials and transformation optics, high power fiber and UV fiber lasers, random lasers and bio-imaging. This session addresses recent developments in the field of modern optics.
Optogenetics is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissues, typically neurons that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels. Optogenetics is a neuromodulation method that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control and monitor the activities of individual neurons in living tissue to precisely measure these manipulation effects in real-time. It includes the associated technologies for delivering light deep into organisms as complex as freely moving mammals, for targeting light-sensitivity to cells of interest, and for assessing specific readouts, or effects, of this optical control. The key reagents used in optogenetics are light-sensitive proteins. This session discusses the latest developments in optogenetics.
Interference is the where the apparent brightness of light changes depending on the light having the same or different phases. If the phases of two beams of light match, their intensities add up and they appear brighter; this is called constructive interference. When the two beams are out of phase and when joined, they produce low intensity known as destructive interference. In analytical science, interferometers are used to measure lengths and the shape of optical components with nanometer precision; they are the highest precision length measuring instruments existing. This session discusses about interferometry and how crucial it is in investigative techniques in the fields of astronomy, fiber optics, engineering metrology, optical metrology, oceanography, seismology, spectroscopy, and chemistry, quantum mechanics, nuclear and particle physics, plasma physics, remote sensing, biomolecular interactions, surface profiling, microfluidics, mechanical stress/strain measurement, velocimetry, and optometry.
MOEMS is a complex photonic MEMS application. Applied in optical networking and telecommunication devices, MOEMS are found in broad range of devices such as optical switches and tunable VCSELS. MOEMS works on a very small scale and involves incorporating and even changing or controlling optical signals using integrated mechanical and electrical systems. Examples of MOEMS at work is seen in consumer devices and or applications like iPad, GPS and HD video streaming, demand is increasing for copious amounts of bandwidth over wireless networks, thereby making effective transmission of signals necessary. MOEMS packaging often requires ultra-high accuracy assembly with +/- 7 microns. This session discusses more about opto-electronics process packaging experience is necessary to develop novel ways to make these complex systems operate at the level they are conceived.
Surface Enhanced Spectroscopy or Surface Enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface sensitive technique which enhances Raman scattering by the molecules adsorbed on the rough metal surfaces by the nanostructures such as plasmonic magnetic silica nanotubes to detect single molecules. The electromagnetic theory recommends the excitation of localized surface plasmons with chemical theory recommending the formation of charge transfer complexes. The chemical theory applies only for the species that have formed a chemical bond with surface. So it cannot explain the observed signal enhancement in all the cases, whereas electromagnetic theory can put on even in those cases where the specimen is physisorbed only to the surface. SERS enhancement can occur even when excited molecule is relatively far apart from the surface which swarms metallic nanoparticles enabling surface plasmon phenomena. This session discusses more about surface enhanced spectroscopy.
Photonics deals with t0he physical science of light or photon generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing. Most photonic applications are in the range of visible and near-infrared light. The term photonics developed as an outgrowth of the first practical semiconductor light emitters invented in the early 1960s and optical fibers developed in the 1970s. Photonics as a field began with the invention of the laser in 1960 followed by the laser diode in the 1970s, optical fibers for transmitting information, and the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. These inventions formed the basis for the telecommunications revolution of the late 20th century and provided the infrastructure for the Internet and the fiber-optic data transmission was adopted by telecommunications network operators. This session discusses more about photonics and the latest developments in its research field.
Nanophotonics deals with the study and use of light in nanoscale projects. Nanophotonics or nano-optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale, and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, optical engineering, electrical engineering, and nanotechnology. Normal optical components, like lenses and microscopes, generally cannot normally focus light to nanometer such as deep subwavelength scales, because of the diffraction limit known as Rayleigh criterion. There are some specific breakthroughs in using light in new technologies such as silicon-based semiconductors where nanophotonics improve speed and performance. It involves metallic components which transports and focuses light via surface plasmon polaritons, around nanoscale metal objects, the nanoscale apertures and nanoscale sharp tips used in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and photoassisted scanning tunnelling microscopy. This session discusses recent developments in nano photonics.
Biophotonics is a combination of biology and photonics. Photonics deals with the science and technology of generation, manipulation, and detection of photons, quantum units of light. Biophotonics deals with the development and application of optical techniques, particularly imaging, to the study of biological molecules, cells and tissue. Biopohotonics help preserve the integrity of the biological cells being examined. Biophotonics deals with the interaction between biological items and photons. This refers to emission, detection, absorption, reflection, modification, and creation of radiation from biomolecular, cells, tissues, organisms and biomaterials. This session discusses more about biophotonics and its applications in the fields of life sciences, medicine, agriculture, and environmental science.
The study of organic photonics include the generation, emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing of light, using organic optical materials. It also includes the study of liquid organic dye laser and solid-state organic dye lasers. Organic Photonics and Photovoltaics deal with the research in the field of organic materials synthesis, fundamental opto-electronic properties, and new fabrication approaches for applications in high performance photonic devices. Organic Photonics also deal with the new structural design and synthesis of organic semiconductors, conductors, and interfacial materials; theory and modeling of electronic structure and light-matter interactions; fabrication and characterization of functional opto-electronic devices, photovoltaics, photodetectors, light-emitting transistors, sensors, etc. This session discusses more about organic photonics and the latest developments in its research.
Fiber optics deals with the study of transmission of information as light pulses along a glass or plastic strand or fiber. Fiber optics transmits data in the form of light particles or photons that pulse through a fiber optic cable. A fiber optic cable contains a varying number of these glass fibers, from a few up to a couple hundred. Surrounding the glass fiber core is another glass layer called cladding protected by a layer known as a buffer, which acts as the final protective layer for the individual strand. The glass fiber core and the cladding each have a different refractive index that bends incoming light at a certain angle. This session discusses about how to boost, the signal throughout its journey fiber optics transmission sometimes requires repeaters at distant intervals to regenerate the optical signal by converting it to an electrical signal, processing that electrical signal and retransmitting the optical signal.
We present the most recent advances in photo-detector design employed in time of flight Positron Emission Tomography (PET). PET is a molecular imaging modality that collects pairs of coincident or temporally correlated annihilation photons emitted from the patient body. The annihilation photon detector typically comprises a scintillation crystal coupled to a fast photo-detector. Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy. A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors. Solar cells convert some of the light energy absorbed into electrical energy. This session discusses more about photodetectors, sensors, systems and imaging and their applications to various fields like medicine, petrochemicals, thermal etc.
Green photonics deals with the development of applied optical systems for generating clean, renewable energy including solar cells and photovoltaic devices, creating energy-efficient optical sources for lighting and display applications and developing environmentally friendly materials for optoelectronic devices and components. Photonics technologies are helping to reduce energy consumption, they are used in manufacturing of renewable energy technologies, and many green, sustainable practices are adhered to throughout the photonics industry. New technologies and products are developed with energy-efficiency in mind. This is not only because energy saving is a buzz word or marketing tool but also because customers are trying to cut their manufacturing costs to save electricity is a great way to start. As such diode lasers are used instead of inefficient gas lasers. This session discusses more about the latest trends in green photonics.
Optics and photonics deal with the fundamental properties of light and harnessing them in practical applications. Optics and photonics covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from high-energy gamma rays and X-rays, through the optical regime of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light, to long-wavelength microwave and radio waves. Latest advances and trends in sensing, imaging, and metrology over the last decade have been critically dependent on optics and photonics, and precision sensing has moved progressively to optically based measurements. Advances and trends in optics and photonics have enabled the latest advancements in precision manufacturing; low-cost, high-resolution cameras in cell phones etc. This session discusses more about the latest trends in optics and photonics.
Microwave photonics is the practical application of electromagnetic waves with a wavelength between one millimeter and one meter. Microwaves have been crucial in applications of communications, and astronomy, including high-frequency electronic systems. For over three decades microwave photonics, which brings together radiofrequency engineering and optoelectronics, has attracted greater interest from both the research community and commercial sector. The technology makes it possible to have functions in microwave systems that are complex or even not directly possible in the radiofrequency domain and also creates new opportunities for telecommunication networks. Here we introduce the technology to the photonics community and summarize recent research and important applications. This session discusses about the latest developments in its research fields including how microwave photonics enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain.
Organic Optoelectronics and Integrated Photonics enables manipulation of photons at a subwavelength scale and applications in optical computing systems, which can overcome the limitations of frequency and power dissipation in silicon electronics. This chapter introduces details of recent progress on the construction of unique organic nanomaterials for novel photonic applications, such as multicolor emission, tunable emission, optical waveguide, and lasing together with some details of photonic devices based on organic solids. It outlines the achievements of organic crystalline one?dimensional nanostructures, allocated to either liquid-or vapor?phase?based methods. The nanoscale waveguides and laser sources are essential to the integrated photonic systems and are crucial for optical information processing. This session discusses more about the latest developments in organic optoelectronics and integrated photonics.
Quantum dots are tiny semiconductor structures in which electrons are confined in all three dimensions. They have electronic and optical properties that can be controlled by adjusting the shape and size of the structures. Quantum dots and metal nanoparticles could lead to better light-emitting diodes and new nonlinear photonic devices. The amount of light emitted by these structures can be increased dramatically by simply tuning the plasma oscillations on the gold particles to resonate with transitions in the quantum dots. Quantum dots are ideal for making a new generation of semiconductor lasers with lower threshold currents and higher efficiencies, as well as light-emitting diodes, solar cells and other photonic devices. Plasmons are collective oscillations of electrons on metal surfaces which interact strongly with light. Researchers, of late, have turned their attention to hybrid structures containing both semiconductor quantum dots and periodic arrays of metallic nanoparticles. This session discusses more about the latest developments in plasmonic structures and quantum dots.